Roots, Logarithms & Trigonometry

Square & cubed Root

Function
Name
Behaviour
sqrt()
Square Root
Returns the square root of a number (also √)
cbrt()
Cube Root
Returns the cube root of a number
sqrt(16) | 4
cbrt(343) | 7
square root of 81 | 9
cube root of 27 | 3

Nth root

root 5 of 100 | 2.5118864315

Logarithms

Function
Name
Behaviour
exp()
Exponential
Calculates the value of e to the power of x, where e is the base of the natural logarithm. exp(1) returns Euler's number.
ln()
Natural logarithm
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant e.
log2()
Base 2 logarithm
Calculate the base 2 logarithm of a value
log(), log10()
Base 10 logarithm
Calculate the base 10 logarithm of a value

Log to any base

log 20 base 4 | 2.1609640474
This is essentially asking "20 is 4 to what power".
You can also use more natural phrases for this operation:
81 is 9 to what power | 2
27 is 3 to the what | 3

Trigonometry functions

Function
Name
sin()
Calculate the sine of a value
sinh()
Calculate the hyperbolic sine of a value
asinh()
Calculate the hyperbolic arcsine of a value
cos()
Calculate the cosine of a value
cosh()
Calculate the hyperbolic cosine of a
acosh()
Calculate the hyperbolic arccos of a value
tan()
Calculate the tangent of a value
tanh()
Calculate the hyperbolic tangent of a value
atanh()
Calculate the hyperbolic arctangent of a value
Trigonometric functions assume a value in radians by default.
If you want to use degrees, specify this in the parameter:
sin(90 degrees) = 1.0
sin(90) = 0.8939966636

Inverse trigonometry functions

Function
Name
asin()
Calculate the inverse sine of a value
acos()
Calculate the inverse cosine of a value
atan()
Calculate the inverse tangent of a value
Inverse trigonometric functions return a value in radians. If you want to use degrees, specify this in the parameter:
asin(0.5 degrees) = 30º
asin(0.5) = 0.5235988 radians

Other

Function
Name
Behaviour
abs()
Absolute value
Returns the absolute value of a number (i.e makes a negative number positive)
fact()
Factorial
Returns the factorial of a given number.
pi or π
Pi
The number pi. I'm sure you've heard of it.